What is nonwoven fabric?


Nonwoven fabric, also known as non-woven fabric, needle-punched cotton, needle-punched nonwoven fabric, and more, is a fabric made from polypropylene, composite fibers, and polyester fibers (polyester). It differs from traditional fabrics as it is not created through weaving or knitting. Instead, nonwoven fabric is typically manufactured through processes such as spunbonding, meltblowing, thermal bonding, needle punching, and hydroentangling, where fibers are bonded together without the need for weaving or knitting.

Hydrophilic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophilic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophobic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophobic Nonwoven Fabric

Production Processes of Nonwoven Fabric

Spunlace nonwoven fabric is a special type of nonwoven fabric made from polypropylene (PP) and is commonly used in products like diapers and sanitary pads. Its weight typically falls between 10-22 grams per square meter (gsm). Unlike traditional methods like meltblowing or spunbonding, its production process primarily involves the use of water and high-pressure water jets.

Spunlace nonwoven fabric typically possesses the following characteristics:

Hot air nonwoven fabric is produced using a hot air process and is typically made from composite fibers of polyethylene (PE). It is commonly used in products like diapers and sanitary pads, with a weight ranging from 18-38 gsm.

Hot air nonwoven fabric typically exhibits the following characteristics:

Spunlace nonwoven fabric, also known as spunlace textile or spunlace fabric, is commonly made from polyester and viscose. It is a special type of nonwoven fabric with a production process involving high-pressure water jets. This manufacturing method gives spunlace nonwoven fabric its softness, breathability, and high absorbency, making it a popular choice in various applications.

Spunlace nonwoven fabric typically possesses the following characteristics:

What Are the Different Appearances of Nonwoven Fabric?
The appearance of nonwoven fabric can vary significantly depending on its manufacturing process, raw materials, and intended applications. Here are some common visual characteristics of nonwoven fabric:
The surface of nonwoven fabric can vary based on the manufacturing process. Some nonwoven fabrics have a smooth surface, while others may exhibit textures or a granular appearance.
The color of nonwoven fabric can differ based on the materials used. Typically, nonwoven fabric is white or light-colored, but it can be dyed to produce various colors.
Nonwoven fabric can be manufactured to varying thickness levels, ranging from thin, paper-like versions to thicker variations.
The arrangement of fibers in nonwoven fabric can affect its appearance. Some nonwoven fabrics have fibers that are interlocked, while others may have a more uniform or orderly appearance.
Certain nonwoven fabrics may feature specific surface patterns or printed designs. This is often done to meet particular functional or aesthetic requirements.
In some nonwoven fabrics, there may be visible defects such as small holes, uneven coloring, or impurities. These defects can impact the fabric’s appearance.

There are several main types of nonwoven fabric, each with its unique manufacturing process and characteristics:

Spunbond Nonwoven Fabric

Spunbond nonwoven fabric is produced by extruding melted polymer through nozzles, stretching it into fine filaments, and bonding it using heat rollers. It is commonly used in packaging, home goods, and agricultural coverings.

Meltblown nonwoven fabric is made by extruding melted polymer through high-speed air jets onto rotating collector drums, forming a microfiber layer that is then collected. It is frequently used in masks, medical supplies, and filtration materials.

Spunlace nonwoven fabric is created by bonding fibers together using high-pressure water jets. It is known for its softness, breathability, and high absorbency, making it suitable for applications like sanitary pads, wet wipes, and household cleaning products.

Needle-punched nonwoven fabric is produced by using a set of specially designed needle-punching devices to pierce and bind fibers together. It is commonly used in applications such as carpet backing, filtration materials, and automotive interiors.

Wet-laid nonwoven fabric is formed by suspending fibers in water, creating a fiber layer on a conveyor belt, and then bonding the fibers together through processes like squeezing, drying, and pressing. It is typically used for specialty nonwoven applications such as specialty filtration materials and wet wipes.

Electrostatic spun nonwoven fabric is produced by using an electric field to eject fibers from nozzles, causing them to align and form a fabric. It is often used in high-performance microfiber applications like filtration and insulation materials.

Nonwoven fabric has a wide range of applications across various industries due to its versatility and customizable nature. Here are some common uses of nonwoven fabric:

Medical masks, surgical gowns, nursing pads, medical caps, gloves, bandages, medical aprons, and more.

Sanitary pads, adult diapers, baby diapers, wet wipes, and tissue paper.

Dishcloths, cleaning wipes, floor cleaning cloths, dusting cloths, and more.

Shopping bags, packaging bags, packaging cushions, plastic wrap, industrial packaging, bouquet wrapping, and more.

Building waterproofing materials, carpet underlays, wall liners, roof waterproof membranes, geotextiles, and more.

Agricultural coverings, greenhouse materials, field coverings, plant protection materials, and more.

Car seat liners, interior car door panels, roof liners, engine hood soundproofing materials, and more.

Air filters, liquid filters, oil-water separators, water treatment filters, and more.

Building thermal insulation materials, insulation materials, clothing liners, shoe insoles, and more.

Athletic shoes, industrial shoes, shoe insoles, shoe liners, and more.

Sports apparel, packaging for sports equipment, and outdoor gear production.

Biodegradable nonwoven fabric, recycled nonwoven fabric, and materials used in environmental and sustainable development projects.

Manufacturing Method

Woven fabric is made by weaving or knitting yarns or fibers together. This process involves interlacing warp threads (long threads of yarn or fiber on a textile machine) with weft threads (threads that run across the warp threads) to create the fabric.

Nonwoven fabric is produced by bonding fibers or fiber aggregates together through methods such as heat pressing, chemical processing, mechanical processing, or high-pressure water jets, rather than by weaving or knitting.

The structure of woven fabric is formed by the interlacing of warp and weft threads, creating a visible grid-like texture. Woven fabric typically has two different surfaces, the right side and the wrong side.

Nonwoven fabric structures are usually more uniform, with fibers or fiber aggregates bonded together in a relatively ordered manner during the manufacturing process, without exhibiting a distinct grid structure.

Woven fabric typically has high strength and durability, capable of withstanding significant tensile forces. However, it may not possess the high absorbency or softness of nonwoven fabric.

Nonwoven fabric is generally softer and has good absorbency, but it may not match woven fabric in terms of strength and durability.

Woven fabric is commonly used in applications where high strength and appearance are required, such as in the production of clothing, bedding, home textiles, tableware, luggage, and automotive interiors.

Nonwoven fabric is frequently used in applications where softness, absorbency, or filtration properties are needed. These applications include medical supplies (e.g., masks, surgical gowns), hygiene products (e.g., sanitary pads, wet wipes), packaging materials, household cleaning products, agricultural coverings, filtration materials, insulation materials, and more.

Nonwoven fabric is typically more robust and less prone to tearing compared to traditional woven fabrics because it is formed by bonding fibers together.

Nonwoven fabric can be designed to have a certain level of breathability, making it suitable for applications such as manufacturing medical supplies like masks and surgical gowns.

With appropriate treatment, nonwoven fabric can be made waterproof, making it suitable for the production of items like raincoats and waterproof packaging materials.

When manufacturing nonwoven fabric, different types of fibers and processing methods can be selected to meet specific application and performance requirements.

Nonwoven fabric finds extensive use in various industries, including medical, agriculture, home goods, packaging, automotive, construction, and more. It is used in products like medical masks, agricultural coverings, home textiles, shopping bags, automotive interiors, and many others.


Regarding whether nonwoven fabric is an environmentally friendly material, we cannot simply categorize it as either eco-friendly or not eco-friendly. Whether a material is environmentally friendly depends on several factors, including the manufacturing process, raw materials, usage, and disposal methods. The environmental characteristics of nonwoven fabric can be discussed in two aspects:


Some nonwoven fabrics can be made from biodegradable materials, meaning they will break down under appropriate environmental conditions, reducing the burden on landfills.

Compared to traditional woven fabrics, the production of nonwoven fabric typically requires less energy and raw materials. In particular, wet-laid nonwoven fabric manufacturing can use more renewable natural fibers.

Some nonwoven fabrics can be recycled and reused. For example, waste nonwoven fabric can be used to produce recycled nonwoven fabric or other products.

The versatility of nonwoven fabric reduces the need for different materials in various applications, thus reducing waste generation.

Raw Material Choice

The environmental friendliness of nonwoven fabric depends on the type of raw materials used. Some nonwoven fabrics use synthetic fibers like polypropylene, which are generally not biodegradable and may pose environmental pollution risks.


Chemical agents may be required in the nonwoven fabric manufacturing process, and these chemicals can potentially pose risks to the environment and health. Sustainable nonwoven fabric production involves minimizing chemical usage and proper waste management.


Disposing of nonwoven fabric waste can be a challenge, especially when nonwoven fabrics are not biodegradable, leading to accumulation in landfills.

While nonwoven fabric production typically consumes less energy, there is still a balance to be struck between energy consumption and environmental friendliness.


Nonwoven fabric has some environmentally friendly aspects, but it also presents challenges in terms of environmental impact. Sustainable nonwoven fabric production requires attention to factors such as raw material choices, process improvements, chemical management, and waste disposal to minimize adverse effects on the environment.


Nonwoven fabric can be either synthetic or natural, depending on the choice of raw materials. Here are some common scenarios regarding nonwoven fabric raw materials:

Synthetic Nonwoven Fabric

Many nonwoven fabric products use synthetic fibers such as polypropylene (PP), polyester (PET), polyethylene (PE), and other synthetic materials. These synthetic fibers are typically created by melting polymer granules and then forming them into fibers through various methods, ultimately producing nonwoven fabric. Synthetic nonwoven fabric is commonly used in applications like medical supplies, packaging, household cleaning products, agricultural coverings, and more.

On the other hand, some nonwoven fabric products use natural fibers such as wood pulp, cotton, flax, hemp, and others. These natural fibers are typically derived from plants and are processed to create nonwoven fabric. Natural nonwoven fabric is often used in hygiene products (like sanitary pads and wet wipes), medical supplies, packaging, environmental products, and more.

In some cases, nonwoven fabric can also be a combination of fibers, including both synthetic and natural fibers, to take advantage of the performance benefits of both.


Therefore, nonwoven fabric can be synthetic, natural, or a blend, depending on factors such as the desired performance, intended use, and cost considerations for producing the nonwoven fabric. Different types of nonwoven fabrics find applications in various industries, with the choice of raw materials tailored to specific requirements.

Nonwoven fabric can be classified into hydrophilic nonwoven fabric and hydrophobic nonwoven fabric when it comes to waterproof properties:

Hydrophilic Nonwoven Fabric: Characteristics: Hydrophilic nonwoven fabric has a hydrophilic surface, meaning it has the ability to absorb liquids quickly. This makes hydrophilic nonwoven fabric well-suited for applications that require high absorbency, such as wet wipes, sanitary pads, and medical bandages. Manufacturing Method: Hydrophilic nonwoven fabric is typically achieved by adding hydrophilic chemical treatments or employing special fiber structures during the manufacturing process. These treatments or structures enhance the fabric’s ability to absorb liquids. Applications: Hydrophilic nonwoven fabric is widely used in products that require high absorbency, especially in the medical, hygiene, and personal care sectors.

Hydrophobic Nonwoven Fabric: Characteristics: Hydrophobic nonwoven fabric has a hydrophobic surface, meaning it repels water and prevents liquid penetration through its surface. This makes hydrophobic nonwoven fabric suitable for applications that require waterproofing or resistance to liquid penetration, such as raincoats, waterproof packaging, and outdoor gear. Manufacturing Method: Hydrophobic nonwoven fabric is typically achieved by adding hydrophobic chemical treatments or using special fiber structures during the manufacturing process. These treatments or structures enhance the fabric’s waterproof properties. Applications: Hydrophobic nonwoven fabric is widely used in products that require waterproofing or resistance to liquid penetration, including outdoor gear, waterproof packaging, rainwear, and more.

Hydrophilic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophilic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophobic Nonwoven Fabric
Hydrophobic Nonwoven Fabric

Cotton fabric is typically woven fabric (woven fabric), not nonwoven fabric (nonwoven fabric).


Woven fabric is created by weaving yarns or fibers together. This process involves interlacing warp threads (the long threads of yarn or fibers on a textile machine) with weft threads (the threads running across the warp threads), forming a textile. Woven fabric usually has a visible grid-like texture, two different surfaces (the right side and the wrong side), and can be very sturdy and durable. Cotton fabric is typically a type of woven fabric, made from woven cotton fibers.


Nonwoven fabric is a type of material made by bonding fibers or fiber aggregates together through methods such as heat pressing, chemical processing, mechanical processing, or high-pressure water jets, rather than through weaving or knitting. Nonwoven fabric typically lacks a visible grid-like texture, has a uniform structure, and can possess characteristics like absorbency and softness.

Advantages of Nonwoven Fabric:
  1. Low-Cost Production: Producing nonwoven fabric is generally cheaper than traditional woven fabric because it doesn’t involve complex weaving or spinning processes.

  2. High Absorbency: Many nonwoven fabrics exhibit excellent absorbent properties, making them suitable for applications like hygiene products and wet wipes that require liquid absorption.

  3. Softness: Nonwoven fabric is typically very soft, making it suitable for products that come into contact with the skin, such as sanitary pads and adult diapers.

  4. Customizability: Nonwoven fabric can be tailored to meet specific performance requirements, such as absorbency, breathability, and waterproofing, during its production.

  5. Versatility: Nonwoven fabric finds applications in multiple industries, from medical supplies to packaging materials to agricultural covers.

Disadvantages of Nonwoven Fabric:
  1. Lower Durability: Compared to traditional woven fabrics, nonwoven fabric generally has lower durability and is more susceptible to wear and tear.

  2. Reduced Breathability: Some nonwoven fabrics may have poor breathability and may not offer the same comfort as traditional woven textiles.

  3. Environmental Concerns: Some nonwoven fabrics use synthetic fibers and chemical treatments, which may have potential environmental impacts, necessitating attention to environmental issues.

Advantages of Traditional Woven Fabric:
  1. Durability: Traditional woven fabrics typically have high durability and can withstand physical stress and wear.

  2. Breathability: Traditional woven textiles generally have good breathability and are suitable for wear in various climate conditions.

  3. Environmental Friendliness: Traditional woven fabrics made from natural fibers can be more environmentally friendly as they are often biodegradable.

Advantages of Traditional Woven Fabric:
  1. High Production Costs: Producing traditional woven fabrics typically requires more time and energy, resulting in higher production costs.

  2. Limited Customizability: Traditional woven textiles are often less flexible in terms of adjusting their performance characteristics compared to nonwoven fabrics.

  3. Not Suitable for Some Applications: Traditional woven textiles may not be suitable for applications that require specific properties like high absorbency or waterproofing.

The future trends and innovations in nonwoven fabric technology include:

  1. Sustainability and Environmental Concerns: Future nonwoven fabric manufacturing will focus more on sustainability. This includes the use of biodegradable materials, reducing the environmental impact of waste and chemical treatments, and implementing green manufacturing methods.

  2. High-Performance Nonwovens: As technology advances, future nonwoven fabrics will emphasize performance. This may involve innovations in areas such as improved absorbency, waterproofing, antimicrobial properties, antiviral capabilities, and filtration performance.

  3. Integration with Electronics: The trend of integrating nonwoven fabrics with electronic technology to create smart textiles will continue to grow. This can be applied in fields such as healthcare, sports, wearable technology, and smart homes.

  4. Nanotechnology: Nanotechnology will be used to enhance the performance of nonwoven fabrics. By using nanofibers, nanocoatings, and nanoparticles, higher levels of performance such as super waterproofing and super absorbency can be achieved.

  5. 3D Printing and Custom Manufacturing: 3D printing technology will be used for manufacturing nonwoven fabrics, allowing for personalized product creation based on individual needs.

  6. Healthcare Applications: Nonwoven fabrics will continue to find applications in the healthcare sector. This includes advanced medical nonwovens, drug-releasing nonwovens, and smart medical textiles.

  7. Fiber Regeneration and Circular Economy: Developing fiber regeneration techniques to recover materials from discarded nonwoven fabrics will promote the circular economy and reduce resource waste.

  8. Smart Manufacturing: Improving nonwoven fabric manufacturing and quality control through automation and machine learning technologies to enhance production efficiency.

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